Enzymesinhumanbodythey serve a number of different functions. Forexample, different categories of enzymes include digestive enzymes, metabolic enzymes, liver enzymes, nucleases, and receptor enzymes. By examining these five categories of enzymes in detail, the many important roles of enzymes in the human body will become clearer.
Before we discuss the various typesdifficultin the body, let's take a moment todefine enzymes. Enzymes are biological molecules that increase the speed of chemical reactions inside cells. Enzymes are usually proteins, although enzymes can be other types of molecules. Enzymes help with processes such as metabolism and digestion and are essential for life on planet Earth. Enzymes can perform many different functions, such as breaking large molecules into smaller pieces so that they can be more easily absorbed by the body, or creating new molecules by linking other molecules together. However, these reactions will only be carried out by certain enzymes, since they are extremely selective catalysts, only the right reaction will be potentiated by the enzyme.
An example of an adaptation method induced by enzyme-substrate binding. Photo: Thomas Shafee - Own work, CC BY 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=45801557
Enzymes that manipulate molecules are called substrates and are attached to specific regions of the enzyme called active sites. There are two different models of enzyme action: the induced fit model and the lock and key model. In the first model, both the substrate and the active sites change their basic shape to stick together, while in the second model, the active site of the enzyme cannot change and will therefore only accept certain substrates. In both cases, enzymes can accelerate the rate of reaction more than a million times after the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme. Chemical reactions resulting from the combination of substrate and enzyme create new molecules or products, which then branch off from the enzyme and can initiate other reactions.
The total atomic weight of enzymes ranges from approximately 10,000 to over 1 million units. Although most enzymes are proteins, this is not true for all enzymes. Some enzymes actually have small RNA molecules that act as catalysts, rather than the catalytic proteins found in other enzymes. Some enzymes are also composed of multiprotein complexes linked by many individual protein subunits. Although many enzymes are capable of catalyzing reactions on their own, additional enzyme cofactors or non-protein components are sometimes required to capitalize the reaction. Inorganic ions such as Mn2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ or Mg2+ can serve as cofactors, or organometallic compounds called coenzymes can serve as cofactors.
different types of enzymes
Examples of hexane isomerase isomers. Photo: Steffen 962 - own work, public domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11726102
Enzymes are macromolecules that catalyze biochemical reactions, and inhibitors are molecules that reduce enzyme activity, while activators increase enzyme activity. Enzymology is the study of enzymes. Enzymes can generally be divided into five different classes:
- Hydrolases cut or cleave part of the substrate through the process of hydrolysis or through the absorption of water molecules.
- Oxidoreductases are enzymes involved in the electron transfer process.
- Isomerases are enzymes that form isomers by transferring groups in a molecule.
- Ligases create new chemical bonds by breaking the pyrophosphate bonds in the nucleotide.
- Transferases are those that transfer chemical groups from one molecule to another.
There are more than 5,000 biochemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes. These enzymes are used in many different products, both in household and industrial products, to create new molecules. Enzymes are often used to produce food products such as cheese, wine and beer. Meanwhile, some diseases are caused by the lack of certain enzymes, such as albinism and phenylketonuria. Some of the more common enzymes are listed below:
DNAPolymerase is an enzyme that initiates the chemical reactions that occur when DNA is copied and prepared for cell division. DNA polymerase ensures that the correct number of bases is used to build DNA.
Many different enzymes are found in cleaning chemicals such as stain removers and laundry detergent. These enzymes help remove oils and stains from fabrics by having the enzymes break down these chemicals, allowing the stains to come out of the fabric.
Papain is a type of enzyme found in meat tenderizers. The enzyme is used to break the bonds between the protein molecules, and it is this reaction that makes the meat more tender.
Amylase is an example of an enzyme in the human body. Amylase is found in our saliva and is part of the initial process of digesting food, starting the breakdown of carbohydrates.
Types of enzymes in the body
There are at least five different classes of enzymes that can be foundinside the body: digestive enzymes, metabolic enzymes, liver enzymes, nucleases and receptor enzymes. Let's look at these different categories of enzymes andconcrete exampleseach of them.
Digestive enzymes participate in the breakdown of food in animals and humans. Examples of digestive enzymes include amylase, pepsin, lipase, nucleases and lysozymes.
Amylase is a type of enzyme that helps break down/digest carbohydrates. Most amylase breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, and the real process begins in the mouth, where salivary amylase, an enzyme found in our saliva, begins to break down food as we chew it. Salivary amylase begins to break down starch into glucose, while the remaining food will be formed and absorbed as it travels through the stomach and intestines.lysosomesthey are also found in saliva and their task is to kill microbes in the mouth.
Photo of Pepsin: Author No machine-readable author listed. DrKjaergaard took over (based on copyright claim). – There is no machine-readable font. Assumed own work (based on copyright claims)., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1255010
Pepsin or peptidases are enzymes that break down various proteinsamino acids, which can then be used to form the molecules needed for the cell to function. Most of the breakdown of complex molecules takes place in the small intestine, although some of it takes place in the stomach.
Lipase is a type of enzyme responsible for breaking down oils and fats into alcohols and fatty acids. Lipase happens to be one of the enzymes found in the pancreas or pancreatic enzymes.
Receptor enzymes are those involved in receiving different biomolecules. Receptor enzymes help activate or deactivate biomolecules such as glucose and glycogen. Receptor enzymes can assist in dephosphorylation or phosphorylation, with dephosphorylation enzymes called phosphatases and phosphorylation enzymes called kinases. Only a few enzymes are also receptors.
Metabolic enzymes, as the name implies, are involved in cell metabolism and detoxification of substances found in the body. There are many different metabolic enzymes that specialize in breaking down different substances. For example, oxidases are enzymes that convert various substances into ketones, while hydrolases break down materials when water is involved.
Reductases are enzymes that introduce hydrogen into substrates during a reaction, while lyases are enzymes associated with the breakdown of molecules without oxidation or hydrolysis. Ligases are enzymes that join two or more molecules. Isomerase can convert molecules into different forms, it is capable of taking one molecule and changing it into a similar but different form, and vice versa. Glucuronic acid is introduced into substances that are not soluble in water by glucuronidase, which makes the molecules soluble in water and therefore can be excreted in the urine from the body. Transannons are enzymes that remove or add amino acids to compounds.
Glycogen synthase is a type of enzyme involved in glycogen production, taking glycogen from glucose and allowing it to be stored in the liver. Lactate dehydrogenase is an enzyme that produces pyruvic acid from lactate. Aminoacyl tRNA (translationRNA) synthetase is a type of enzyme responsible for attaching different amino acids to tRNA, which will help reproduce the genetic information of the cell.
The liver is the organ responsible for detoxifying substances, allowing the body to get rid of waste through urine. The liver has many different enzymes to break down toxic compounds, some of the most important enzymes being aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Alanine transaminase (ALT) can also be called serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), while aspartate aminotransferase (AST) can be called serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT). These two enzymes act on amino acids to capitalize them. Along with AST and ALT, there is a family of enzymes called cytochrome p450, which are responsible for managing the breakdown of various drugs.
There are also many enzymes in the nervous system that help metabolize neurotransmitters. For example, acetylcholinesterase is responsible for breaking down acetylcholine, while monoamine oxidase breaks down many substances such as noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine.
In addition to enzymes that are related to different systems in the body, there are also special enzymes within the body, enzymes that perform functions that are not related to the aforementioned systems. Urokinase is an enzyme that breaks down clots, while endonucleases are enzymes that separate DNA strands. There are subtypes of endonucleases called restriction endonucleases that cleave DNA strands at a specific site. Hyaluronidase is a sperm-borne enzyme that is released into the female reproductive tract and is intended to help sperm penetrate the egg wall and fuse with the egg. An enzyme that specializes in cutting and sealing DNA is DNA topoisomerase-II, while DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is an enzyme that helps make mRNA. Finally, cyclooxygenase enzymes come in two forms CO X1 and COX-2 and are responsible for controlling the production of prostaglandins, chemicals involved in gastric mucus production and inflammation.
O Daniel Nelson
Daniel has a bachelor's degree and is pursuing a master's degree in human-computer interaction science. He looks forward to working on projects that combine science and the humanities. His education and training is diverse, including education in computer science, communication theory, psychology and philosophy. Its goal is to create content that educates, persuades, entertains and inspires.
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There are at least five different classes of enzymes that can be found within the body: digestive enzymes, metabolic enzymes, liver enzymes, nucleases, and receptor enzymes.What is an enzyme and give 5 examples? ›
Lipases: This group of enzymes help digest fats in the gut. Amylase: In the saliva, amylase helps change starches into sugars. Maltase: This also occurs in the saliva, and breaks the sugar maltose into glucose. Trypsin: These enzymes break proteins down into amino acids in the small intestine.What are 5 physiological roles of enzymes in human health? ›
Enzymes catalyze all kinds of chemical reactions that are involved in growth, blood coagulation, healing, diseases, breathing, digestion, reproduction, and many other biological activities.What are the 3 main types of enzymes in the human body? ›
Amylase (made in the mouth and pancreas; breaks down complex carbohydrates) Lipase (made in the pancreas; breaks down fats) Protease (made in the pancreas; breaks down proteins)What are 6 examples of enzymes? ›
The six kinds of enzymes are hydrolases, oxidoreductases, lyases, transferases, ligases and isomerases.What are 4 important enzymes? ›
There are four main enzymes that facilitate DNA replication: helicase, primase, DNA polymerase, and ligase.What is a real life example of an enzyme? ›
The enzyme pepsin, for example, is a critical component of gastric juices, helping to break down food particles in the stomach. Likewise, the enzyme amylase, which is present in saliva, converts starch into sugar, helping to initiate digestion. In medicine, the enzyme thrombin is used to promote wound healing.What are the 7 types of enzymes? ›
Enzymes can be classified into 7 categories according to the type of reaction they catalyse. These categories are oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, and translocases. Out of these, oxidoreductases, transferases and hydrolases are the most abundant forms of enzymes.What is an example of an enzyme in everyday life? ›
Lactase is an important enzyme for humans and for the dairy industry. In humans, lactase is a transmembrane protein in the intestine that breaks lactose down into glucose and galactose. These two sugars can then be transported out of the intestine and into the blood.What are enzymes in the human body? ›
The enzyme types used today for industrial processes can be found in the human body: e.g. protease, lipase and amylase. Enzymes play an essential role in each living cell of our body – whether they are organs, muscles, bones, nerves, etc. Without enzymes our body would not function at all.
An enzyme is a type of protein found within a cell. Enzymes create chemical reactions in the body, and can actually speed up the rate of a chemical reaction to help support life. Enzymes are produced naturally in the body and help with important tasks, including: building muscle.How many enzymes are in the human body? ›
The macromolecular components of all enzymes consist of protein, except in ribozymes, which have ribonucleic acid. Recent studies estimate that the human body produces approximately 1300 different enzymes.What are three enzymes in biology? ›
The three digestive enzymes are amylase, lipase, and protease.What are 3 types of enzymes found in the stomach and their functions? ›
- Lipases split fatty acids into fats and oils.
- Proteases and peptidases split proteins into small peptides and amino acids.
- Amylases split carbohydrates such as starch and sugars into simple sugars such as glucose.
Amylase, maltase, and lactase in the mouth digest carbohydrates. Trypsin and lipase in the stomach digest protein. Bile emulsifies lipids in the small intestine. No food is absorbed until the small intestine.What are the 8 types of enzymes? ›
According to the type of reactions that the enzymes catalyze, enzymes are classified into seven categories, which are oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, and translocases. Oxidoreductases, transferases and hydrolases are the most abundant forms of enzymes.What are the 6 enzymes in DNA? ›
The order of enzymes in DNA replication include the following: DNA helicase, RNA primase, DNA polymerase, and finally DNA ligase. During the process of DNA replication, the double helix unwinds with the help of the enzyme DNA helicase.Is insulin A enzyme? ›
Enzymes catalyze reactions and hormones behave like messengers, triggering different body functions. This makes insulin a hormone rather than an enzyme. In fact, it is considered the body's main anabolic hormone. Insulin promotes the absorption of glucose from the blood into the liver, fat cells, and muscle cells.What are the most enzymes in the human body? ›
As proteins are made up of amino acids, enzymes are also the linear chains of amino acids. The largest enzyme present in the human body is Titin.What are 6 uses of enzymes? ›
Enzymes are used in industrial processes, such as baking, brewing, detergents, fermented products, pharmaceuticals, textiles, leather processing.
An enzyme is a biological catalyst and is almost always a protein. It speeds up the rate of a specific chemical reaction in the cell. The enzyme is not destroyed during the reaction and is used over and over.What is a household example of an enzyme? ›
Some household products use enzymes to speed up chemical reactions: enzymes in biological washing powders break down protein, starch or fat stains on clothes, and enzymes in meat tenderizer break down proteins into smaller molecules, making the meat easier to chew.Is yeast A enzyme? ›
Hence, yeast is an enzyme.What are the 5 types of enzyme regulation? ›
There are five major regulation mechanisms that are used on enzymes. These include (1) allosteric regulation (2) reversibly covalent modification (3) proteolytic cleavage (4) concentration of enzyme (5) isoenzymes.What are 5 examples of enzymes in household products? ›
The most common enzyme types used in the Household care industry are proteases, amylases, lipase, cellulases, mannanases, and pectinases.Is saliva an enzyme? ›
Saliva contains special enzymes that help digest the starches in your food. An enzyme called amylase breaks down starches (complex carbohydrates) into sugars, which your body can more easily absorb. Saliva also contains an enzyme called lingual lipase, which breaks down fats.Which is the first enzyme in human body? ›
The oral cavity is where the chemical process of digesting begins. The hydrolytic action of the carbohydrates splitting enzymes, salivary amylase, is responsible. Therefore, Amylase is the first enzyme to interact with food.What are the most common types of enzymes? ›
There are six main categories of enzymes: oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases. Each category carries out a general type of reaction but catalyzes many different specific reactions within their own category.Which organ produces all 3 enzymes? ›
Your pancreas creates natural juices called pancreatic enzymes to break down foods. These juices travel through your pancreas via ducts. They empty into the upper part of your small intestine called the duodenum. Each day, your pancreas makes about 8 ounces of digestive juice filled with enzymes.What are the 2 types of enzymes? ›
There are 2 types of enzymes, ones that help join specific molecules together to form new molecules & others that help break specific molecules apart into separate molecules.
Pepsin is a stomach enzyme that serves to digest proteins found in ingested food. Gastric chief cells secrete pepsin as an inactive zymogen called pepsinogen. Parietal cells within the stomach lining secrete hydrochloric acid that lowers the pH of the stomach. A low pH (1.5 to 2) activates pepsin.What are the names of the 3 enzymes? ›
- Amylase. Function: Amylase is an enzyme that is responsible for the breaking of the bonds in starches, polysaccharides, and complex carbohydrates to be turned into simple sugars that will be easier to absorb. ...
- Lysozyme. ...
- Sucrase. ...
Digestive enzymes play a key role in breaking down the food you eat. These proteins speed up chemical reactions that turn nutrients into substances that your digestive tract can absorb. Your saliva has digestive enzymes in it. Some of your organs, including your pancreas, gallbladder, and liver, also release them.What are the 3 enzymes involved in protein synthesis? ›
mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA are the three major types of RNA involved in protein synthesis. The mRNA (or messenger RNA) carries the code for making a protein.What is the most common enzyme in the human body? ›
- Carbohydrase breaks down carbohydrates into sugars.
- Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids.
- Protease breaks down protein into amino acids.
Enzymes can be classified into 7 categories according to the type of reaction they catalyse. These categories are oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, and translocases.Where are enzymes in the human body? ›
Digestive enzymes are mostly produced in the pancreas, and help your body break down foods and extract nutrients.How are enzymes used in everyday life? ›
Enzymes are used in the food, agricultural, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries to control and speed up reactions in order to quickly and accurately obtain a valuable final product. Enzymes are crucial to making cheese, brewing beer, baking bread, extracting fruit juice, tanning leather, and much more.What are the 5 enzymes in DNA? ›
- Helicase (unwinds the DNA double helix)
- Gyrase (relieves the buildup of torque during unwinding)
- Primase (lays down RNA primers)
- DNA polymerase III (main DNA synthesis enzyme)
- DNA polymerase I (replaces RNA primers with DNA)
- Ligase (fills in the gaps)
- Amylase, produced in the mouth. ...
- Pepsin, produced in the stomach. ...
- Trypsin, produced in the pancreas. ...
- Pancreatic lipase, produced in the pancreas. ...
- Deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease, produced in the pancreas.
Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts within living cells. Catalysts increase the rate at which chemical reactions occur without being consumed or permanently altered themselves.Which contains 40 different types of enzymes? ›
Lysosomes are single unit membrane bound cell organelles which contain a variety (40 types) of hydrolytic enzymes.